Abbreviations

ACT-A Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator

ACTT Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial

AI artificial intelligence

AMC Advanced Market Commitment

ART antiretroviral therapy 

ARV antiretroviral   

BARDA Biomedical Advanced Research and Development 

BMGF Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

CDC Centers for Disease Control

CDSCO Central Drugs Standard Control Organization

CEPI Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations

CHAI Clinton Health Access Initiative

CL compulsory license

COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019

CTAP Coronavirus Treatment Acceleration Program

DCGI Drug Controller General of India

DCV daclatasvir 

ddPCR droplet digital PCR 

DHHS Department of Health and Human Services          

DoD Department of Defense

DSMB Data and Safety Monitoring Board

EC European Commission

EMA European Medicines Agency

EU European Union

EUA Emergency Use Authorization

FDA Food and Drug Administration

FDAs Food and Drug Authorities/Administrations

FIND Foundation for Innovative Diagnostics

GAVI Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations

GFATM Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria 

GSK GlaxoSmithKline

HCV hepatitis C virus

ICER Institute for Clinical and Economic Review 

IDMC independent data monitoring committee 

IFR infection fatality rate

IP intellectual property

IVA Inclusive Vaccines Alliance

JAK Janus kinases 

J & J Johnson & Johnson

LMIC low- and middle-income countries

LPV/r lopinavir/ritonavir

MERS Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

MIS-C Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children 

mRNA messenger RNA

MSF Médecins Sans Frontières

NDRA national drug regulatory agencies

NHS National Health Service

NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIH National Institutes of Health 

OWS Operation Warp Speed    

PCR polymerase chain reaction

PPE personal protective equipment                                                                                                                         

RDIF Russian Direct Investment Fund 

SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 

SOC standard of care

SOF sofosbuvir 

STATs signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins

TB tuberculosis

TRIPS Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

UN United Nations

US United States

USAMRID US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases 

US FDA United States Food and Drug Administration

VL voluntary license 

VRC Vaccine Research Center 

WHO World Health Organization

WTO World Trade Organization